Reduced fat Italian sausage was prepared with oatmeal at 10, 20, and 30% (w/w), and oatmeal precook times of 0, 2, and 4 minutes. Cook loss and expressible moisture, cutting force and texture profile analysis, color, and consumer sensory analysis were analyzed by response surface methodology. Minimum cook loss occurred at 16.3% oatmeal and 0.76 min precook time, while expressible moisture decreased with increasing oatmeal levels and decreasing precook time. In general, both cutting force and hardness decreased with oatmeal level. Measurements of L*, a*, and b* showed a slightly lighter product, and a shift to more red and yellow cooked product at intermediate oatmeal levels and precook times. For sensory attributes, both oatmeal level and precook time were significant. Greatest flavor and texture likeability were attained with oatmeal levels of 3-12%, and precook times of 1.5-3 minutes. Greatest overall likeability occurred over a region of 0-14% oatmeal, and 1.1-3.3 minutes.
|1.||To evaluate the use of oatmeal in the preparation of low fat sausage|
|2.||To demonstrate how different levels and precooking times affected the properties and likeability of the sausage|
|Lack of Fit
p > F
|R²||Optimal Points (oatmeal/precook time)|
|%Cooking Loss||1.2 - 1 3.3||0.031||0.005||0.0038||<0.0001||0.89||2.07% (16.3/0.7) min|
|%Expr Moisture||2.0 - 7.7||<0.0001||<0.0001||0.075||0.0044||0.93||NA|
|Cutting Force (g)||790 - 1999||<0.0001||0.39||0.013||0.030||0.86||NA|
|Hardness (g)||1109 - 4968||<0.0001||0.073||<0.0001||0.17||0.96||NA|
|Adhesiveness (g s)||0.024||0.22||0.55||0.32||0.41||889 gs (12.9/1.4) max|
|Cohesiveness||<0.0001||0.004||0.25||0.012||0.83||0.39 (31.7/2.4) sp|
|L*||42.5 - 50.2||0.047||0.20||0.36||0.15||0.52||45.7 (14.7/2.4) sp|
|a*||3.86 - 5.28||0.67||0.19||0.14||0.0098||0.68||4.86 (14.7/2.43) max|
|b*||8.6 - 15.8||0.021||0.41||0.27||0.089||0.62||12.5 (8.93/2.22) sp|
|Sensory Flavor||4.74 - 6.78||<0.0001||0.0076||<0.0001||~1||7.03 (3.26/3.17) max|
|Sensory Texture||4.37 - 7.02||<0.0001||0.12||0.0077||~1||6.89 (6.04/2.26) max|
|Sensory Color||5.3 - 6.02||0.86||0.0009||0.0013||~1||NA|
|Overall Likeability||4.51 - 6.79||<0.0001||0.0044||<0.0001||~1||6.96 (8.05/2.27) max|
|NA=optimum out of data range, min=minimum, max=maximum, sp=saddle point|
Figure 1. Cooking loss
Figure 3. Cutting force
Figure 4. Flavor
This material is based upon work supported by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Agreement No. 00-51110-9762.
Permission is granted to reproduce these materials in whole or in part for educational purposes only (not for profit beyond the cost of reproduction) provided the authors and the University of Georgia receive acknowledgment and this notice is included:
Reprinted with permission of the University of Georgia. W.L. Kerr, S.G. Choi and E.L. Andress. 2004. Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced Fat Italian Sausage Prepared with Oatmeal. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia, Cooperative Extension Service.
References to commercials products, services, and information is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the University of Georgia, U.S. Department of Agriculture and supporting organizations is implied. This information is provided for the educational information and convenience of the reader.
The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State University, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and counties of the state cooperating. The Cooperative Extension Service, the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences offers educational programs, assistance and materials to all people without regard to race, color, national origin, age, sex or disability. An Equal Opportunity Employer/Affirmative Action Organization Committed to a Diverse Work Force.